From Gender and Tech Resources
This HowTo has been copied from the wiki of the hackerspace Technologia Incognita (located in Amsterdam)
- 1 Internet Plumbing
- 2 Overview
- 3 Next topics
Internet Plumbing is a word-game with multiple layers of meaning (ha! a recursive pun ;-)
Series of Tubes
Ubiquitous and complicated as plumbing?
- Internet as a utility
- just like "plumbing" (water & sewage), there is underlying "technology" to it, so complex, that no-one seems to grasp how all of it works
- 60% of the population of the planet does NOT have "teh Internets", and 30% does not have plumbing either (http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/sanitation.shtml)
- IPv4, IPv6: Internet Protocol (IP) addresses
- NAT: Network Address Translation
- DNS: Domain Name System
- ASN: Autonomous System Number
- used for BGP routing (Border Gateway Protocol)
- IXP: Internet eXchange Point
- DNS & CDNs: Internet plumbing: Think globally, route locally, Mar 16th 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21016766/print
- youtube hijack
- How IXP's work
- Net of Rights
Security, Privacy, Avoiding Censorship
- BGP security & plumbing:
- User Self-help:
MeshNet: "Hackers and philosophers building an utopia together": http://becha.home.xs4all.nl/hackers-philosophers-utopian-network-dec-2012-becha.pdf
November 2014: Nature will have the last word, on Future of Technology, RIPE69 https://wiki.techinc.nl/index.php/File:Nature-speaking-on-future_of_the_internet-RIPE69.pdf
UnCivilization: critical thinking about Internet & capitalism: https://lists.puscii.nl/wws/info/uncivilization
Playfull: Internet Simulator: https://github.com/nsec/the-internet
- Alternative Network Deployments: Taxonomy, characterization, technologies and architectures
- The Critical Engineering Manifesto: https://www.criticalengineering.org/
Comparing OSI & TCP / IP layers
Original borrowed from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model
|TCP / IP Model||OSI Model|
|Layer||OSI Layer||Protocol data unit (PDU)||Function||Examples|
|Application||7. Application||Data||High-level APIs, including resource sharing, remote file access, directory services and virtual terminals||TLS, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, SMTP, SSH, Telnet, BGP!|
|6. Presentation||Translation of data between a networking service and an application; including character encoding, data compression and encryption/decryption||CSS, GIF, HTML, XML, JSON|
|Transport||5. Session||Managing communication sessions, i.e. continuous exchange of information in the form of multiple back-and-forth transmissions between two nodes||RPC, SCP, NFS, PAP,|
|4. Transport||Segment (TCP) / Datagram (UDP)||Reliable transmission of data segments between points on a network, including segmentation, acknowledgement and multiplexing||NBF, TCP, UDP|
| Network /
|3. Network||Packet||Structuring and managing a multi-node network, including addressing, routing and traffic control||AppleTalk, ICMP, IPsec, IPv4, IPv6|
|2. Data link||Frame||Reliable transmission of data frames between two nodes connected by a physical layer||IEEE 802.2, L2TP, LLDP, MAC, PPP, ATM, MPLS|
|1. Physical||Bit||Transmission and reception of raw bit streams over a physical medium||DOCSIS, DSL, Ethernet physical layer, ISDN, USB|
- ARP is used to translate IPv4 addresses (OSI layer 3) into Ethernet MAC addresses (OSI layer 2).
- Domain Name Service is an Application Layer service which is used to look up the IP address of a given domain name. Once a reply is received from the DNS server, it is then possible to form a Layer 3 connection to the third-party host.
Explaining complex concepts using layers is a useful abstraction.
Goal here is to illustrate layers by practical examples, and point out owners, developers, dangers, mitigations & alternatives.
This is not exactly technically correct, for the detail oriented people!
|Number||Layer name||Example||Practically||Owner||Developed by||Vulnerabilities / Dangers||Mitigation / Securing||Alternatives|
|9||Organisation / Political||(Internet) Governance||technical community, civil society, governments||IGF (Internet Governance Forum), UN, ITU, IETF, ICANN,||awareness, take part!||someone will build a new *net, AlterNet :-)|
|8||Individual / Financial||Operating System (OS) + choice of software||Linux, FreeBSD, Minix...; iOS, Android, Windows...||User!|| programmers & developers: FLOSS community;
|backdoors, surveillance, spying on users; lock-in; monopoly;||community participation; unionization of programmers; see articles here [yy]||knowledge, self-empowerment, solidarity|
|7||Application||7.3 -> VoIP||skype|
|7.2 -> SMTP|
|7.1 HTTP: web, WWW||web sites! LoLCats!|| individuals, on their own servers!
blogs (blogspot?), mainstream media, hosting companies; CDNs (Akamai, Amazon...); corporations: Google, Facebook, Twitter... YouTube..
|W3c, IETF||censorship; silos; walled gardens; commercialization, consumerism;|| technically: httpS, SSL, TLS; Tor;
politically: activism, digital human rights; associations of users;
|torrent! p2p! alternative social media!|
|6||Presentation||HTML, CSS, JSON|
|5||Session||BGP (actually layer 7...)|| routing: exchanging AS reachability info via gossip: based on trust & peering agreements!
physical routers by routers: Cisco/Juniper (commercial monopolists ;-)
|Large ISPs; Tier1 / Tier2 ; IXPs!! RIRs give out AS numbers||"routing-wg" @ RIPE; *NOGs! (nano, nlnog, grnog; peering forums; Euro-IX); IETF; Open-Source community ; hackers||"route hijacks", government regulation & takeover (killer switch), hierarchies;|| technically: BGPsec, IRR, RPKI;
politically: influencing governance
|p2p protocols, Betman [xx]; MPLS, SDN; Tor?!|
|4||Transport||UDP -> e.g. DNS (see above!)||www.belastingdiest.nl||User; Registrar, Registry, ccTLD, gTLD, ICANN, US government!||DNS OARC, IETF, root-nameserver operators, ICANN, IGF/UN/ITU||"balkanisation", US hegemony; internationalization; censorship;|| technically: DNSSEC, DANE ; Tor;
politically: participating in governance
|Alternative trees; blockchain (namecoin); etc|
|3||Network||Internet / IP||ifconfig; IPv4, NAT, 10.10.10.10, IPv6|| no-one: IP addresses are "leased"!
|RIR PDP, IANA, IETF||hierarchy, run-out, incompatibility, market forces; surveillance||IPSec||Blockchain? GSM? Radio?|
|2||Data-link||MAC addresses, Ethernet device drivers, WiFi drivers||licensed to users||Broadcom, Realtech, INTEL..||patents, closed source, Intellectual Property Laws||open source SW, open HW||?!|
|1||Physical||Network connections||Ethernet cables, WiFi antennas, fibers, satellites, satellite dishes, base-stations, under-sea cables ; POTS (old-fashioned phones -> BBS, dialup)|| Individuals
communities, ISP, "carriers", corporations, governments,
commercial companies, governments
|"ownership" models; hierarchy of server-client model; pollution & distraction of Earth; surveillance||commoning; shared infrastructure; development of sustainable technologies (?!), recycling; awareness & activism||Community WiFi, Project Loon, Drones|
|HW - end user equipment||Computer, tablet, phone...||User||Commercial companies: Apple, Siemens, Samsung...||Un-ethical manufacturing, security backdoors, pollution caused by e-waste disposal,||Hard:||Open HW movement; fair-phone; DIY, Repair Cafes, fair-trade...|
Participate, take action, join
- Terminal: CLI command
- web interface: traceroute.org
- Massive traceroute tool: RIPE Atlas
- OpenIPmap - visualization tool & crowdsourcing platform for IP addresses of infrastructure routers
- How Asymmetric is the Internet? A Study to Reinforce the use of Traceroute, Wouter de Vries and José Jair Santanna, University Twente https://ripe69.ripe.net/presentations/14-UT_DACS_RIPE_HATI_20141031.pdf https://ripe69.ripe.net/archives/video/163
- GitHub repo with lots of Viz tools:
- smoketrace: http://oss.oetiker.ch/smokeping/index.en.html
- NLNOG RING
- https://www.nanog.org/resources/tutorials with videos!
At the end of the tutorial, you should watch this video and spot all the places where he is completely WRONG: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SXmv8quf_xM